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 on: October 25, 2009, 08:38:11 PM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
The latest two issues of “Ichnos An International
Journal for Plant and Animal Traces” has a series of
papers about various aspects of fossil hominid
footprints. They are:

Ichnos An International Journal for Plant and
Animal Traces, Volume 15 Issue 3 & 4 2008:

Hominid Ichnology: Tracking Our Own Origins:

In the Footprints of Our Ancestors: An Overview
of the Hominid Track Record:

Hominid Ichnotaxonomy: An Exploration of a
Neglected Discipline:

Morphodynamic Perspectives on Convergence between
the Feet and Limbs of Sauropods and Humans: Two
Cases of Hypermorphosis

Footprint Clues in Hominid Evolution and Forensics:
Lessons and Limitations

Pliocene Animal Trackways at Laetoli: Research
and Conservation Potential

The Devil's Trails: Middle Pleistocene Human
Footprints Preserved in a Volcanoclastic
Deposit of Southern Italy

Last Interglacial Hominid and Associated Vertebrate
Fossil Trackways in Coastal Eolianites, South Africa

Preservation and Paleoenvironmental Significance
of a Footprinted Surface on the Sandai Plain, Lake
Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley

Analysis and Preservation of Pleistocene Human and
Animal Footprints: An Example from Toluquilla,
Valsequillo Basin (Central Mexico)


Ichnos An International Journal for Plant
and Animal Traces, Volume 16 Issue 1 & 2 2009

Preliminary Report on Hominid and Other Vertebrate
Footprints from the Late Quaternary Strata of Jeju
Island, Korea

Human Tracks from Quaternary Tufa Deposits, Cuatro
Cienegas, Coahuila, Mexico

Late Quaternary Palaeoichnological Sites from the
Southern Atlantic Coast of Buenos Aires Province,
Argentina: Mammal, Bird and Hominid Evidence

Ephemeral, Subfossil Mammalian, Avian and Hominid
Footprints within Flandrian Sediment Exposures at
Formby Point, Sefton Coast, North West England

A Brief Sketch of the Monte Hermoso Human Footprint
Site, South Coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

America's Most Famous Human Footprints: History,
Context and First Description of Mid-Holocene
Tracks from the Shores of Lake Managua, Nicaragua

Holocene Human Footprints in North America

A Survey of Tetrapod Tracksites Preserved in
Pyroclastic Sediments, with Special Reference to
Footprints of Hominids, Other Mammals and Birds

Preservation of Human Tracks in Arid Environments

Rheotactic Macaronichnus, and Human and Cattle
Trackways in Holocene Beachrock, Greece:

Hominid Footprints in Recent Volcanic Ash: New
Interpretations from Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

Do Shod Humans Leave True Tracks?

Formation and Taphonomy of Human Footprints in
Microbial Mats of Present-Day Tidal-flat
Environments: Implications for the Study of
Fossil Footprints

Paul H., a member of Hall of Ma'at, is credited with assembling these links.

 on: October 25, 2009, 08:35:12 PM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
Mass spectrometric U-series dating of the Chaoxian hominin site at Yinshan

Guanjun Shen, Yingshan Fang, James L. Bischoff, Yue-xing Feng, Jian-xin
Quaternary International, In Press


The fossils of Chaoxian hominin, widely accepted as representing archaic
Homo sapiens in eastern China, were recovered from the middle or
slightly higher levels of Layer 2 deposits of a collapsed cave at
Yinshan, Anhui Province. Results of mass spectrometric U-series dating
of intercalated speleothem calcites are presented. Based mainly on four
broadly coeval calcite samples, the hominin fossils should be bracketed
in the range of 310–360 ka or somewhat older. These ages are much
older than the previous estimate at 160–200 ka based on the U-series
dating of fossil teeth and bones, and may be cited as supporting
evidence for an earlier H. erectus–archaic H. sapiens interface in

 on: October 25, 2009, 08:33:14 PM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos
hominids yields 600+infinity/-66 kyrs: implications for the
evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage
James L. Bischoff a,*, Ross W. Williams b, Robert J. Rosenbauer c,
Arantza Aramburu d, Juan Luis Arsuaga e,f, Nuria Garcı´a e,f, Gloria Cuenca-Besco´s g
Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007) 763e770

The Sima de los Huesos site of the Atapuerca complex near Burgos, Spain contains the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals in a mudbreccia underlying an accumulation of the Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri). We report here on new high-precision dates on the recently discovered speleothem SRA-3 overlaying human bones within the Sima de los Huesos. Earlier analyses of this speleothem by TIMS
(thermal-ionization mass-spectrometry) showed the lower part to be indistinguishable from internal isotopic equilibrium at the precision of the TIMS instrumentation used, yielding minimum age of 350 kyr (kyr¼ 103 yr before present). Reanalysis of six samples of SRA-3 by inductivelycoupled plasma-multicollector mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) produced high-precision analytical results allowing calculation of finite dates. The
new dates cluster around 600 kyr. A conservative conclusion takes the lower error limit ages as the minimum age of the speleothem, or 530 kyr. This places the SH hominids at the very beginnings of the Neandertal evolutionary lineage.

“…The SH collection now comprises more than 80% of the Middle Pleistocene record world-wide for the genus Homo and provides
for an unprecedented study of within-population variations
(Arsuaga et al., 1997c; Lorenzo et al., 1998). The SH hominids
are the evolutionary ancestors to the Neandertals (Arsuaga
et al., 1991, 1993; Arsuaga et al., 1997a,b) and thus, dating
of the deposit is clearly of great importance…”

“…Since 2003, over 55 human fossils have been recovered from below
a recently discovered speleothem at SRA while only a few human
bones have been recovered at SRB, and SRM. A jaw fragment
(AT 75) with two teeth (left M2eM3), designated as Individual 6 from the site, was originally recovered in the Sima proper from area A (square Q 10), together with an isolated tooth (AT-1760 ¼ left P3) from the same individual (also found in Q 10). Another tooth from this individual
(AT-1763 ¼ left P4) was subsequently found at SRB, and yet
another (AT-1759 ¼ left M1) from area B (square T-13)
(Bermu´dez de Castro et al., 2004). One tooth from SRA
(AT-4328 ¼ right P3) has also been assigned to Individual 6,
based on the compatibility of the wear stages and anatomical
similarity in the morphology of the cusps. Thus, Individual 6 is
represented in SRA, SRB, area B and area A of the Sima; a distribution
which covers the entire extent of the Sima deposits
(Figs. 3 and 4). This distribution suggests that the date for
the deposit established in SRA also applies to the rest of the
Rampa and SH proper…”

“…The entire sequence of human remains is capped by a sheet of
speleothem flowstone (Colada), generally earthy and impure. U series
and radiocarbon dating indicates the Colada formed from
about 68 kyr to about 25 kyr. The range of U-series nominal
dates for 25 bear bones (88-220 kyr) and for 16 human bones
(114-182 kyr) that underlie the Colada are similar and rather
broad, but are clearly affected by irregular post-depositional
uranium cycling. Nine additional bear bones were analyzed by
the combined ESR and U-series method (Bischoff et al.,
1997). Dates for six of these yielded 200 +/- 4 kyr whereas the
other three yielded dates of 320 +/-4 kyr. Thus, the earlier results
seemed to provide a firm minimum age of about 200 kyr for the
human entry; and suggestive evidence of possible entry prior to
320 kyr…”

“…a 14-cm thick in situ speleothem (SRA 3, Figs. 4 and 5) lying
stratigraphically beneath the Colada speleothem and, therefore,
older than the Colada. Immediately below the SRA 3
speleothem, bones belonging to at least two individuals of
the bear species, U. deningeri, were recovered, and among
the bear bones two human phalanges were found. Subsequent
excavations have recovered over 55 additional human fossils
from below the SRA 3 speleothem. The newly exposed speleothem
was examined carefully to establish that it is, indeed, in
situ, that it formed in place covering the bones. The lowermost
1 cm contains fragments of the underlying sediment and small
fragments of bone. Therefore SRA-3 is clearly younger than
the human bones. The speleothem is of high purity and crystallinity
and, therefore, excellent material for U-series dating
to provide a minimum age for the human bones. The speleothem
is laminated (ca. 1 cm laminae, Fig. 6), is pure calcite,
containing less than 0$3 wt% organic carbon and containing
exceptionally low amounts of detrital contamination. The laminae
truncate at about 4 cm below the top, representing a hiatus
in speleothem growth…”

“…U-series analyses by thermal-ionization mass-spectrometry
(TIMS) of 14 samples reported in 2003 (Bischoff et al., 2003)
were taken about every centimeter spanning the entire 14 cm
thickness. Results indicated that the uranium contents are relatively
high averaging 0.6 ppm, and the 230Th/232Th ratios are
all well in excess of 20, the limiting value below which extraneous
(detrital) Th significantly affects the date (Bischoff and
Fitzpatrick, 1991). Three samples above the hiatus yielded finite
dates in stratigraphic order from 153 to 281 kyr. Those below
the hiatus were indistinguishable from internal isotopic
equilibrium at the precision we were able to obtain from the
TIMS the instrumentation used at the time, yielding minimum
age of 350 kyr…”

“…All the samples yielded finite dates
ranging from 563 to 668 kyr (average 600 kyr). Two of the samples,
at _5 cm and at 10.5 cm, had upper limits of equilibrium
(infinite age). All the others had finite ages for their upper limit.
A conservative approach is to consider the lower limit ages as
the minimum age of the speleothem, a range from 513 to
571 kyr (average 530 kyr). We show in Table 2 the analytical
results of our analyses of solutions of equilibrium standards.
The results show that we obtain equilibrium values within analytical
error. Therefore, in as-much as the composition of the
SRA-3 samples are very close to equilibrium, they are finite,
and we deem the calculated dates to be real because of internal
consistency and reproducibility, and because of our results on
the equilibrium standards. Results of the two groups are shown
on an evolution diagram (Ludwig, 2000) in Fig. 7.…”

“…radiometric results should be considered conclusive for a minimum
age of 530 kyr (MIS 14) for the SH sediments. In addition,
the presence of several skeletal parts representing the
same individual (Individual 6) in different sectors of the
Sima complex, including below the SRA-3 speleothem, suggests
that the age of the speleothem can be applied to the entire
hominid sample from the site…”

 on: October 25, 2009, 08:31:57 PM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
"...Recent sequencing of
ancient Neandertal DNA suggests that their
common ancestor with modern humans lived
a bit less than 500,000 years ago, quite likely
in Africa (Science, 13 February, p. 870).
Some researchers call this common ancestor
H. heidelbergensis, although they disagree
about which fossils to group in that species.
In his talk at Gibraltar, Tattersall argued that
the real evolutionary picture might be much
more complicated..."

"...Tattersall agreed that some fossils—
including the 225,000-year-old Steinheim
skull found near Stuttgart, Germany, and a
400,000-year-old skull from Swanscombe,
England—might fit Hublin’s “accretion
model.” But others, he said, emphatically do
not. The big stumbling block is one of the
most spectacular fossil finds in the history of
paleoanthropology: the discovery since the
mid-1990s of thousands of bones from some
28 hominin individuals at the cave site
of Sima de los Huesos in northern Spain
(Science, 2 March 2001, p. 1722). The published
finds include four hominin skulls with
both Neandertal-like and non-Neandertal features.
And the team working at the site, co-led
by anthropologist Juan Luis Arsuaga of the
Complutense University of Madrid, has
assigned its fossils to H. heidelbergensis.
The Sima fossils were f irst dated to
about 350,000 years ago. But more recent
uranium-series dating, led by geochronologist
James Bischoff of the U.S. Geological
Survey in Menlo Park, California, suggests
that they are at least 530,000 years old. That
would make them as old as or older than
“classic” H. heidelbergensis fossils from
southern France, Greece, and other places—
fossils that the Sima skulls don’t much resemble,
Tattersall insisted. Tattersall concludes
that two or more hominin lineages must have
existed side by side in Europe for several hundred
thousand years before H. sapiens arrived
from Africa. One line led to the Neandertals
and may have included the Sima fossils;
another, rightly called H. heidelbergensis,
went extinct while the Neandertals lived on
until at least 30,000 years ago..."

Jim Bischoff is having a heyday recently!


"...Tattersall then looked at Arsuaga, who
was sitting in the audience waiting to speak
next: “My central plea is to the colleagues
who assigned the Sima de los Huesos fossils
to H. heidelbergensis. They are clearly not
Neandertals, but not being a Neandertal does
not make them H. heidelbergensis. They need
another name.” A hush fell over the room as Tattersall sat
down and Arsuaga got up to speak. To nearly
everyone’s surprise, Arsuaga agreed that the
Sima de los Huesos skulls looked nothing
like other H. heidelbergensis specimens. Nor,
he said, do 13 other skulls his team had
recently excavated there. “We have always
said that we put the Sima hominins under the
H. heidelbergensis umbrella for convenience,
for practical reasons,” Arsuaga said, adding
that his team agrees with Tattersall that the
accretion scenario is not likely. But he resisted
Tattersall’s call to rename the Sima fossils,
at least until the remaining 13 skulls are published
in coming months..."

"...Chris Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the
Natural History Museum in London whose
early research led to the recognition of H. heidelbergensis
as a formal species, says a lot is
riding on the new 530,000-year minimum date
for the Sima fossils. If the dating is right,
Stringer says, “it would be evident that an early
form of Neandertal was [in Europe] alongside
of H. heidelbergensis.” But he argues that the
dating is at the limit of the uranium-series technique
and also contradicts other molecular and
fossil evidence suggesting that the Neandertal
line split off somewhat after 500,000 years ago.
Bischoff defends his methodology, however,
saying that the date is a “conservative” estimate
and that the Sima hominins could be even older
than 530,000 years but not younger..."

New Work May Complicate History
Of Neandertals and H. sapiens

 on: October 13, 2009, 04:09:48 PM 
Started by Jacques Cinq-Mars - Last post by E.P. Grondine
The effect in Europe and South America:

2009 FALL AGU San Francisco, CA
Field-Analytical approach of land-sea records for elucidating the Younger Dryas Boundary syndrome
SECTION/FOCUS GROUP: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology (PP)
SESSION: Younger Dryas Boundary: Extraterrestrial Impact or Not? (PP15)
1. Geoarcheology, INRAP, Pessac, France.
2. Prehistory -IPHES-ICREA, CNRS-MNHN, Tarragona, Spain.
3. Paleoocenography, CNRS-CEA UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Linking lonsdaleite crystals, carbon spherules and diamond polymorphs from the North American dark layers at 12.9 cal yr B.P. to a cosmic event has questioned the nature and timing of the related impact processes. A global signal should trace the invoked airshocks and/or surface impacts from a swarm of comets or carbonaceous chondrites.

Here we report on the contextual analytical study of debris fall events from three reference sequences of the Younger Dyras period (11-13 ka cal BP):

(1) sand dune fields along the French Atlantic coast at the Audenge site;
(2) A 10 m record of detrital/bioorganic accumulation in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea with regular sedimentation rate (0.1 to 3 mm per year) from 14 to 2-ka BP cal;
(3) the Paijan sequence (Peruvian coastal desert) offering fossiliferous fluvial layers with the last large mammals and aquatic fauna at 13 ka BP sealed by abiotic sand dunes.

The three sequences display one remarkable layer of exogenous air-transported microdebris that is part of a complex time series of recurrent fine dust/wildfire events. The sharp debris-rich microfacies and its association to ashes derived from calcination of the local vegetation suggest instantaneous deposition synchronous to a high intensity wildfire. The debris assemblage comprises microtektite-like glassy spherules, partly devitrified glass shards, unmelted to partly melted sedimentary and igneous clasts, terrestrial native metals, and carbonaceous components. The later occur as grape-clustered polymers, vitrified graphitic carbon, amorphous carbon spherules with a honeycomb pattern, and green carbon fibres with recrystallized quartz and metal blebs. Evidence for high temperature formation from a heterogeneous melt with solid debris and volatile components derived from carbonaceous precursors supports an impact origin from an ejecta plume. The association of debris deposition to total firing would trace a high energy airburst with surface effects of the fireball. In contrast, microfacies and debris composition of the recurrent fine dust/wildfire events would trace a series of a low energy airburst. Their record is expressed in the Audenge sequence by a series of water-laid laminae of charred pine residues formed of carbonaceous spherules wrapped by carbonaceous polymers that includes lonsdaleite crystals as detected by high resolution in situ micro-Raman analysis. This association suggests recurrent flash forest wildfires ignited by hot spray of carbon-rich debris, followed by heavy snow falls. The record from the Peruvian desert suggests a possible linkage between the repeated debris fall/wildfires during the Younger Dryas and the following irreversible aridity along the Peruvian cost. In contrast the Caspian record of the Younger Dryas period indicates more gradual changes, possibly buffered by the hydrological functioning of the Caspian sea in a complex region. The Audenge context offers the amplified signal needed to understand at local to global scales the spatio-temporal pattern of impact-airburst events.

KEYWORDS: [4901] PALEOCEANOGRAPHY / Abrupt/rapid climate change, [1029] GEOCHEMISTRY / Composition
of aerosols and dust particles, [4924] PALEOCEANOGRAPHY / Geochemical tracers, [5420] PLANETARY
SCIENCES: SOLID SURFACE PLANETS / Impact phenomena, cratering.
Previously Presented Material: Original results, never presented, never published

 on: October 03, 2009, 12:45:00 AM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
The Yomiuri Shimbun

MATSUE--Twenty stone tools believed to be the oldest discovered in the nation have been excavated from a mid-Paleolithic period geological layer, dating back 120,000 years, at an archeological site in Izumo, Shimane Prefecture, researchers said Tuesday.

If anyone has been able to track down images of these specimens, would you please post them?



 on: September 22, 2009, 07:45:50 PM 
Started by E.P. Grondine - Last post by E.P. Grondine
I don't know if anyone has posted on this before, but I want to place it here:

Two consequences:
1) "Homo aquaticus" - we now have a large range of places for marine adaptation and technologies to develop.
2) Since migration occurred early, the Zamanshin Impact would have severely affected early man.

My own thinking is that we have a common neanderthal/sapiens ancestor here, but as always, we'll see.

I have been wrong before, and I reserve the right to be wrong both now and in the future.

 on: September 20, 2009, 06:40:51 PM 
Started by Charlie Hatchett - Last post by Charlie Hatchett
All files and photos linked in this post are courtesy of Virginia Steen-McIntyre from her archives. Photos and text credited to their respective authors.



ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%201.tif

ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%202.tif

ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%203.tif

ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%204.tif

ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE- DRAWING's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%205.tif

ARMENTA'S TETELA 1 ENGRAVED MASTODON BONE- DRAWING's%20Tetela%201%20engraved%20mastodon%20bone%206.tif







Steen-McIntyres 2003 Current Research in the Pleistocene Submission



VanLandingham, S. 2009c (abs.), Alleged Unconformity at the Hueyatlaco
Archaeological Site (Puebla, Mexico) Advocated by the Center for the
Study of the First Americans is Negated by 37 Lines of Diatom
Correlation, 20th North American Diatom Symposium, September 23-27,
2009, Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, Milford, Iowa, Program & Abstracts.

Sam l. VanLandingham1
1Consulting Environmentalist/Geologist, 1205 West Washington, Midland,
Texas 79701 USA

No other archaeological site in the world is known to be associated with
such a vast variety of age and paleoecologically diagnostic diatom
fossils as Hueyatlaco: 37 lines of correlation demonstrate this. In the
present work, 33 additional lines of diatom correlation are added to the
four previously published by the author, all of which discredit this
alleged unconformity: 7 of these lines pass directly through and the
remaining 26 pass within 3 m of the supposed unconformity at the
Hueyatlaco site. No proof of the postulated unconformity has been
presented, because it is a vacant hypothesis: it cannot be proven, since
the so called evidence has been destroyed (eroded away). At no other
location in the world would one be likely to find any non-marine
diatomaceous sequence with as many as 22 distinct beds with a total
thickness < 30 m which would result in so many lines of correlation
between samples based on the six criteria (i.e., taxonomic percentage
correlation, pennate to centric ratios, extinct taxa, earliest known
first occurrences, paleoecology, and dominance/subdominance associations
of taxa) for diatom correlation within a spherical area with a diameter
of < 3 m. All but 2 of the 37 lines of correlation link to samples
within the artifact-bearing B, C, E, and I Units of C. Irwin-Williams.
And all of these 35 lines of correlation corroborate a minimum age of
Last Interglacial (Sangamonian) for all of the artifact beds connected
with them. In the 37 lines of correlation, total diatom taxa extinct at
the end of the Sangamonian range from 5 in lines 9 and 36 to 17 in lines
1 and 30. Six of the lines of correlation have the
Cocconeis-Navicula-Synedra generic dominance/subdominance association
which is otherwise known in the fossil record only from the Last
Interglacial of Europe and in the Western Hemisphere only in the six
correlation lines (4 of which pass directly through the
"unconformity"). Line 4 (which passes straight through the supposed
unconformity) links two samples (in the centric paucity zone) both of
which have the Cocconeis-Navicula-Nitzschia-Synedra
dominance/subdominance association, the only such occurrence of this
association known in the Western Hemisphere. 

VanLandingham, S. 2009, Extraordinary Examples of Deception in Peer Reviewing: Concoction of the Dorenberg Skull Hoax and Related Misconduct, International Symposium on Peer Review (ISPR), Orlando, Florida, July 10-13 (to be published in July).

Below is the reference to Sam VanLandingham's latest paper on the age of the artifact-bearing sediments at Hueyatlaco, along with the abstract. He was working with the younger artifact-bearing beds (bifacial tools); the unifacial, edge-retouched tools are older still.

----------, 2009, Use of diatom biostratigraphy in determining a minimum (Sangamonian = 80,000--ca. 220,000 yr. BP) and a maximum (Illinoian = 220,000--430,000 yr. BP) age for the Hueyatlaco artifacts, Puebla, Mexico. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 135, p. 15-36.

----------, 2008, Yarmouthian (430,000 - 500,000 yr BP) chrysophyte cyst assemblages aid in corroborating a maximum Illinoian (ca. 220,000 - 430,000 yr BP) age for the artifacts at the Hueyatlaco site, Puebla, Mexico (abs.), 7th International Chrysophyte Symposium, Connecticut College, 270 Mohegan Ave., New London, Connecticut, June 22-26, 2008, Program (with abstracts)

Abstract: Bona fide artifacts have been found in situ in sedimentary deposits which, by various reputable means (including fossil cysts), have been demonstrated to be older than the Last Ice Age, but most American archaeologists disagree. No other archaeological site in the world is known to be associated with such highly significant age and environmentally diagnostic cyst/diatom evidence as Hueyatlaco. Two diagnostic Yarmouthian (430,000 - 500,000 yr BP) cyst assemblages (in samples VL2149 and VL2316) occur in a bed (Unit J) which is conformably below (and older) than the lowermost artifact-bearing bed (Unit I) at the Hueyatlaco archaeological site. And these two samples correlate with a third diagnostic Yarmouthian sample (68M288=VL2243) from a core 7 km NNW at Rancho Batan. The extinctions and earliest known first occurrences of the 26 extant and 8 extinct cyst taxa in the three samples (with a minimum 430,000 yr BP Yarmouthian age) corroborate a maximum of 430,000 yr BP age for the Hueyatlaco artifacts which previously was established by means of cyst/diatom assemblages with a maximum age of Illinoian (220,000 - 430,000 yr BP) in Unit I.

----------, 2006, Diatom evidence for autochthonous artifact deposition in the Valsequillo region, Puebla, Mexico during the Sangamonian (sensu lato = 80,000 to ca 220,000 yr BP and Illinoian (220,000 to 430,000 yr BP). J. Paleolimnol, 36, 101-116.

----------, 2004, Corroboration of Sangamonian age of artifacts from the Valsequillo region, Puebla, Mexico by means of diatom biostratigraphy. micropaleontology, 50:4, 313-342.

----------, 2002, Corroboration of Sangamonian Interglacial age artifacts at the Valsequillo archaeological area, Puebla, Mexico, by means of paleoecology and biostratigraphy of Chrysophyta cysts. Transactions of the 37th Regional Archaeological Symposium for Southern New Mexico and West Texas -- Southwestern Federation of Archaeological Societies Annual Meeting, April 6-7, 2001, Iraan, Texas, pp. 1-14.

----------, 2000, Sangamonian Interglacial (Middle Pleistocene) environments of deposition of artifacts at the Valsequillo archaeological site, Puebla, Mexico. Transactions, 35th Regional Archaeological Symposium for Southern New Mexico and Western Texas -- Southwest Federation of Archaeological Societies Annual Meeting, April 9-11, 1999, Midland, Texas, pp. 81-98.












 on: September 20, 2009, 06:13:52 PM 
Started by trehinp - Last post by Bones
“Until recently, there was a sexism in the study of evolution. Researchers focused on men and the tools they used in hunting, and these things were more difficult to connect to reproductive success and hence to natural selection. With childbirth, as well as many of the other things that happen to women -- pregnancy, nursing, menopause -- it's really easy to see how natural selection works.”

It is difficult for me to see how the acquisition of food is a less central and obvious driver of human evolution than the social roles of menopausal females.

Where is the sexism more pervasive -- with hunting observers or Rosenberg?

 on: September 12, 2009, 06:47:03 PM 
Started by S. L. Wang - Last post by S. L. Wang
wow, i'm completely, utterly, speechless...

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